Macula OCT : A retinal scan test which allows detection of swelling in the center of retina (macula).
All the above tests helps in diagnosing the stage of diabetic retinopathy & the treatment plans. The above tests may be repeated on regular basis to know the progression of your diabetic retinopathy.
The following modalities are usually advised :
1. Laser Photocoagulation :
Scatter laser treatment involves placing 1000 to 2000 burns in the area of retina away from centre (macula) so as to shrink the abnormal blood vessels.
Focal laser treatment is used to treat macular edema (swelling) whereby small laser burns are placed in the area of leakages. These burns slow the leakage & reduce the amount of fluid in centre of retina. Laser treatment can reduce the risk of blindness by 90%. However laser treatment cannot restore vision that has been already lost. It mainly helps to stabilise the exiting vision.
2) Intra viteral injections : They are an adjunct to laser. Helps avoid repeated laser. Injections show dramatic reduction in macular edema as well as help in resolving the bleedings.
New generation injections are so effective that sometimes they have come to become the first line of treatment.
3) Vitrectomy (Retinal Surgery) : If the bleeding is severe or if there is a traction (pull) on the retina, Vitrectomy helps in clearing the blood, stabilising the retina & reducing the chances of blindeness.
Please do note that multiple sitting of laser and / or injection may be required in combination / separate, depending upon your disease progression. It is well documented that the above treatment, done on timely basis, can help prevent visual loss.